Antimicrobial compositions comprising glyceryl nitrates
Offered are antimicrobial solutions comprising a glyceryl nitrate (e.g., glyeryl trinitrate) in combination with a chelator (e.g., citrate), a peroxide, a fatty acid, and/or an alcohol (e.g., ethanol). In a variety of facets these components may synergistically act to kill or decrease the growth of germs, like bacteria or fungi, present in a biofilm.
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1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to the area of molecular biology and medicine. More particularly, it concerns antimicrobial compositions comprising a glyceryl nitrate.
2. Description of Related Art
Currently, compositions for biofilm eradication where contact with humans or animals can happen generally need high alcohol concentrations, antibiotics or comparatively toxic concentrations of antifungal agents. Antibiotics are oftenexpensive and their prophylactic use is problematic because of the prospect of causing antimicrobial resistance.
Vascular catheters are currently hydraulically locked with saline or heparin solutions between infusions or blood clotting through lumens. The hydraulically locked lumens are generally capped off between applications. Lumens can become contaminatedwith parasites or bacteria through introduction of infected infusates, by ecological vulnerability when uncappedthrough manual contact with luers and/or caps. In the case of suspected bloodstream infections for catheterized patients, disinfection andsalvage of this catheter having an antimicrobial lock may be used. Antibiotic lock solutions are often used but have the disadvantages of being expensive and risking the evolution of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Diseases from antibioticresistant organisms typically have higher treatment costs and mortalities. High concentration ethanol solutions also have been attempted. Flushing of a 70% ethanol lock solution did not produce a substantial reduction in disease and has been associatedwith a higher indigence of non-severe complaints associated with inebriation (Slobbe et al., Prevention of Catheter-Related Bacteremia using a Daily Ethanol Lock in patients with Tunneled Catheters: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, PLoS ONE 5(5):e10840). A prophylactic clinical trial involving 1-3 hours of locking with 50% ethanol was not helpful in reducing disease in elderly patients using long-term catheters (Crnich et al., Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Trial of an Ethanol Lockfor Prevention of CLABSI [Abstract]. In: 49th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. San Francisco, USA. 2009).
Microorganisms present in biofilms can be especially hard to eradicate. Biofilm phenotypes are important in recalcitrant device-associated and nosocomial infections and are a great deal more challenging to eliminate than microbes at the diluteplanktonic state. Biofilm formation is frequently an significant part generating an infection by a bacterial or fungal organism. In addition, biofilm formation can cause odor, discoloration, discoloration and other significant issues by fouling pipes andother industrial gear. 1 medical application of specific interest is disinfection of the lumenal surfaces of vascular catheters. Intralumenal infections are a substantial problem for long term catheterized patients that require vascular accessfor infusion of medications or nutrition. In between catheter uses, the lumens of the catheters are typically locked with saline or heparin-saline solutions to prevent blood from clotting and occluding the lumens. Through the course of handling duringaccess processes or via use of contaminated infusates catheter lumens can become colonized by pathogenic organisms and can become a source of bacteremias or candidemias. Lumenal sourced colonization is the most frequent cause of late-onsetcatheter-associated blood flow disorders. Clearly, there is a need for new antimicrobial compositions that might be used to kill microorganisms present in biofilms.
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